Vol 1-1 Editorial

Thalassemia and Nephrolithiasis

Beuy Joob 1*, Viroj Wiwanitkit 1

1Sanitation 1 Medical Academic Center, Bangkok Thailand

1Honorary professor, dr. DY Patil University, Pune, India

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Vol 1-1 Review

Use of Polyacrylamide Hydrogel for Vesicoureteral Reflux Treatment, a Review

Francis Lemire1, Anne-Sophie Blais1, Katherine Moore1 and Stephane Bolduc1*

1Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, CHU de Québec - Université Laval Research Center, Québec, Canada

Purpose of the review: Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is a common pathology encountered in pediatric urology. If left untreated, this condition can lead to infectious complications, hypertension and loss of renal function by scars. There is a trend for minimally invasive procedures to minimise treatment-related complications. Endoscopic subureteral injection of bulking agent in the treatment of VUR is an example of minimally invasive options. Several bulking agents have been studied and the perfect agent has not yet been discovered. Polyacrylamide hydrogel is a relatively new agent used to treat VUR and its use will be reviewed.

Recent findings: Three modern studies from a Canadian group have evaluated the use of polyacrylamide hydrogel for endoscopic injection to treat VUR. The first study reported a cure rate of 81.2% without major complication. In the second study, injection of polyacrylamide hydrogel was compared to dextranomer hyaluronic acid and no significant difference was observed, with overall success rate of 73.1% and 77.5% respectively. The third trial evaluated the long-term efficacy and safety of polyacrylamide hydrogel with a 36-month follow-up. Overall success at 3 months was 70.7% and no patient had de novo hydronephrosis or calcification of the agent at 36 months.

Conclusion: Polyacrylamide hydrogel seems to be a safe and effective alternative bulking agent in the treatment of VUR. The contribution from other centers to validate those data would be valuable.

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